Possible origins for Dianetics and Scientology
My starting point is the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary definition
of plagiarism, viz "the taking and using as one's own of
the thoughts, writings, or inventions of another." Hubbard's
plagiarism was extensive. He took ideas from earlier authors without
proper acknowledgment; repudiated his initial, partial acknowledgment
of other authors; and many times took ideas from his followers
without acknowledging them. By far the majority of Hubbard's published
work was actually readied for publication by others. Over time,
acknowledgment for these co-authors has simply been removed from
The key concept in any argument relating to Hubbard's plagiarism
is that of "source". In the early days, Hubbard expressed
a debt to other thinkers. For example, there are a number of references
to Freud and Breuer in his 1950 lectures. Hubbard also initially
credited U.S. Navy doctor Commander Thompson. The books Science
of Survival (1951) and Scientology 8-8008 (1952) both
contain acknowledgment lists. However, on 7 February 1965 Hubbard
published the Policy Letter "Keeping Scientology Working",
where he said: "Our technology has not been discovered by
a group. True, if the group had not supported me in many ways
I could not have discovered it either." This Policy Letter
appears in all but introductory Dianetic and Scientology courses.
In the Executive Directive "How to Raise Stats" (01),
Hubbard said, "I am the source of Dianetic and Scientology
tech, know-how and org[anization] form." In a talk given
on 27 January 1986, the then head of the Sea Organization, which
governs Scientology, Pat Broeker, said "There is only one
source of Scientology and Dianetics tech, and that is L. Ron Hubbard
... There is - not 'was', is - only one Source ... What
is it about LRH that made him Source? His technology - the Grades,
the OT levels, all of his discoveries. Nobody else - nobody
- ever discovered it." (02).
These assertions, despite Hubbard's earlier admissions, are held
to be "sacred scripture" in Scientology (03).
Hubbard is styled "Source" by Scientologists. The
Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary defines "source"
as "1. the point of origin, or it would be the originator,
or where something was begun or dreamed up or mocked up."
Scientology's Modern Management Technology Defined defines
"Source" thus: "Scientologists recognize and revere
the spiritual leadership of L. Ron Hubbard as the Founder, and
as the Source of the religious philosophy of Scientology."
Earlier, Hubbard had said "parts of these answers have been
represented in many places under many names." (The Scientologist
- A Manual on the Dissemination of Material, 1955).
In a 1954 lecture, Hubbard said, speaking of the Hindu Vedas,
"A great deal of our material in Scientology is discovered
right back there" (04). Further, "We find Scientology's
earliest certainly known ancestor in the Veda ... we can look
back across a certain span of time, across a great many minds
and into a great many places where man has been able to sit long
enough to think, through this old record, and find where it joins
up with the present and to what we, in Scientology are rightly
indebted. For to say that out of whole cloth and with no background,
a Westerner such as myself should suddenly develop all the things
you need to know to do the things they were trying to do, is an
incredible and unbelievable and untrue statement." (05). In
the book Creation of Human Ability (1954), Hubbard said
"Scientology is an organization of the pertinancies which
are mutually held true by all men in all times" (06) and "Almost
everything I have studied or observed has been evaluated otherwise
somewhere, at some time, in relation to this or that". (07)
This equivocal attitude can also be seen in attempts by Scientology
to make comparison with earlier work. The booklet Scientology
and the Bible was published in 1967 and copyrighted by L.Ron
Hubbard. The subtitle is "A Manifest Paralleling the Discoveries
of Scientology by L.Ron Hubbard with the Holy Scriptures".
Over 160 points of comparison are made, attributing "parallels"
with most of the basic tenets of Scientology (including the Axioms
and the Factors from which all of Scientology supposedly derives).
In "Advance! Magazine", issue 18, published in 1973
and copyrighted by L.Ron Hubbard, there is an elaborate comparison
between Scientology and the Chinese Tao Te Ching, which predates
the Christian era (08).
The Background and Cermonies of the Church of Scientology of
California, World Wide, was published in 1973, and copyrighted
by L.Ron Hubbard. Here comparisons are made with other "religious
philosophies" (e.g., "Eastern religious philosophy has
many similarities to be found in Scientology", p.10). Hubbard
(or his ghost author) says: "In Hinduism, the separation
of the Mind, Body and Spirit is very definitely a vita[l] part
of the religious thinking - and it coincides with Scientology."
(p.11). The book also acknowledges Hindu belief in reincarnation
(p.11f). Hubbard even asserts that the authors of the Hindu Vedic
literature were aware of the distinction between the conscious
and unconscious minds (p.12). Acknowledgment is also made of the
principle of "karma": "We would also agree with
the moral law of cause and effect as detailed by the Hindu."
(p.12). Reference is made to Buddhism and to Spinoza ("to
understand something is to be delivered of it", p.14. This
is the underlying doctrine of Scientology auditing). The book
goes on to make comparisons between Scientology and the thought
of Carl Rogers (p.14), Aristotle (p.16), Spinoza (pp.16f), Thomas
Aquinas (pp.19f), the Bible (pp.21f) and "Modern Western
DIANETICS: THE MODERN SCIENCE OF MENTAL HEALTH (09)
"The goal of Man, the lowest common denominator of all his
activities, the dynamic principle of his existence, has long been
sought ... TIME, SPACE, ENERGY and LIFE have a single denominator
in common ... They obey a single order and that order is 'SURVIVE!'
... It is not a new thought that Man is surviving. It is a new
thought that Man is motivated only by survival." (Dianetics,
pp.18-19). A year after publishing this statement about his discovery
of the "lowest common denominator" of all human activities,
Hubbard said this in a lecture: "You are asked this question
in the field many times, I am sure. 'How does Dianetics differ?
... And they say, 'You look back in Darwin's theory, and you will
find there that it's by natural selection - the survival of the
fittest. Now, how does that possibly differ from "the dynamic
principle of existence is survive"? It's the same
thing!' It is not the same thing, because we have an aligned
body of knowledge. We have taken 'the dynamic principle of existence
is survive,' and then we have explored survival and found
out where everything fits into the picture properly on survival
... There is a big difference between this and a phrase lying
back there. It is true that Dianetics has a great debt to pay
to Darwin" (10). Hubbard also credited Herbert Spencer, who
coined the expression "survival of the fittest", in
the acknowledgment lists in Science of Survival and Scientology
8-8008, and in Research and Discovery volume 1, pp.440-441 (11).
In Scientology 0-8, Hubbard asserts: "Man had no inkling
whatever of Dianetics. None. This was the bolt from the blue." (12).
In fact, Dianetics derived largely from work abandoned by Freud
before the turn of the century. In a series of lectures given
in 1909 (the Clark Lectures) (13), Freud described this work in
some detail. The similarities to Hubbard's original Dianetics
are startling - Freud concluded that hysterical states can bring
about the illusion "of a whole number of serious diseases" (14)
and said "our hysterical patients suffer from reminiscences" (15).
Hubbard asserted that by far the greatest number of physical ailments
are "psychosomatic" - or hysterical ("Psycho-somatic
illnesses are those which have a mental origin but which are nevertheless
organic ... About seventy per cent of the physician's current
roster of diseases falls into the category of psycho-somatic illness."
Dianetics, p.91). The hysterical symptoms "had arisen
... as residues ... of emotional experiences ... the particular
nature of the symptoms was explained by their relation to the
traumatic scenes which were their cause." (16). Hubbard's
Dianetics depends entirely upon the re-experiencing of past trauma
("engrams" and "secondary engrams").
Hubbard also followed Freud in asserting that traumatic memories
form in "chains" ("CHAINS: Any series of incidents
in the engram bank which have similar content." Dianetics,
p.423). As Freud has it: "What left the symptom behind was
not always a single experience. On the contrary, the result
was usually brought about by the convergence of several traumas,
and often by the repetition of a great number of similar ones.
Thus it was necessary to reproduce the whole chain of pathogenic
memories in chronological order, or rather in reversed order,
the latest ones first and the earliest ones last; and it was quite
impossible to jump over the later traumas in order to get back
more quickly to the first, which was often the most potent one." (17).
Hubbard has "Reduce every engram you contact and when the
engram will not reduce try to get the earlier one like it which
keeps it from reducing and reduce that. Follow this procedure.
Never leave a chain of engrams in restimulation. Discover the
basic of that chain and reduce it." (18). "Basic"
is defined by Hubbard as "The first engram on any similar
chain of engrams" (Dianetics, p.423).
In re-experiencing a traumatic memory, Freud insisted that there
must be expression of emotion (or "generation of affect" (19)).
Hubbard spoke of "returning" in Dianetics: "the
person can 'send' a portion of his mind to a past period on either
a mental or a combined mental and physical basis and can re-experience
incidents which have taken place in his past in the same fashion
and with the same sensations as before." (Dianetics,
p.11). Both Hubbard and Freud spoke of emotional "charge"
("Hysterical conversion exaggerates this portion of the discharge
of an emotionally cathected (charged) mental process" (20).
Hubbard has as a definition of "charge": "emotional
charge or energy (21). Freud also described the "bewildering
realization that in one and the same individual there can be several
mental groupings" (22). These are described as "valences"
or "demon circuits" in Dianetics. Freud was also
to describe the division of the personality with his notions of
the "id", "ego" and "superego",
and with the theory of "transference" which asserts
that patients transfer responses especially from parents to later
figures of authority or support. This is the basis of Hubbard's
valence theory as expressed, for example, through the "ally
As with Hubbard, Freud used post-hypnotic suggestion as an analogy
for the working of the unconscious mind: "In the familiar
condition known as 'post-hypnotic suggestion', a command given
under hypnosis is slavishly carried out subsequently in the normal
state. This phenomenon affords an admirable example of the influences
which the unconscious state can exercise over the conscious one;
moreover, it provides a pattern upon which we can account for
the phenomena of hysteria." (23). Hubbard asserts: "it
was discovered that these 'unconscious' periods ["engrams"]
were rather like periods of hypnosis driven home by pain. The
patient responded as if the 'unconscious' period had been post-hypnotic
suggestion." (Dianetics: the Evolution of a Science,
Freud and Hubbard both attempted to recover "chains"
of traumatic memories to relieve emotional "charge".
The most recent memory is taken up first, and then progressively
earlier memories to the earliest (called the "earlier similar"
technique in Scientology). Freud also used a method dubbed "repeater
technique" in Hubbard's Dianetics: the Modern Science
of Mental Health: "In interviewing a patient, the auditor
[Dianetic practitioner] notes carefully without appearing to do
so, what phrases the patient chooses and repeats about his ills
or about dianetics." (Dianetics, p.214-215); "It
was observed that, while the patient was in her states of 'absence'
... she was in the habit of muttering a few words to herself which
seemed as though they arose from some train of thought that was
occupying her mind. The doctor [Breuer], after getting a report
of these words, used to put her into a kind of hypnosis and then
repeat them to her so as to induce her to use them as a starting-point." (24).
Hubbard claimed that his interest in psychotherapy was sparked
by a meeting with U.S. Navy doctor Commander Thompson, in 1923
(when Hubbard was twelve). "Through his friendship I attended
many lectures given at Naval hospitals and generally became conversant
with psychoanalysis as it had been exported from Austria by Freud." (25).
Hubbard also accepted that Freud had understood what Hubbard was
to call the "time-track": "All the great savants
of the field of the mind never even suspected this track except
Freud, and he said that the body contains some sort of a record
or blueprint of its immediate past." (26).
Hubbard acknowledged Freud in several places: "The early
part of Freud's work back around 1894 was good and we can use
it. His equation 'Full recall equals full sanity,' whether he
realized it or not, was the key that unlocked the door." (27).
"his tenet of longing for the womb stated clearly that there
must be memory associated with them ['prenatal incidents']." (28).
"Freud ... did discover that there was possibly some coordination
between mental reaction or mental experience and psychosomatic
illnesses stemming from the mind." (29). "It is true
that Dianetics has a debt to pay to Freud" (30). "Sigmund
Freud stressed traumatic pre-natal incidents ... Forgotten
incidents were postulated by Sigmund Freud, to whom through Commander
Thompson, one of his students and the friend and mentor of my
youth, I am much endebted, to be a considerable factor in human
sanity." (31). However, Hubbard was also to deny Freud: "As
a matter of fact, to Breuer's first belief in the subject of mental
catharsis and to Korzybski belong the only acknowledgments that
Dianetics really would care to make. Because both General Semantics
and Breuer furnished some data. Sigmund Freud is not in there
... But Breuer was pretty right. It was Breuer's theory that full
recall equalled full sanity ... The jump is from Spencer to Breuer
to Korzybski to Dianetics." (32).
In 1950 and 1951, Hubbard spoke of the use of "narcosynthesis"
(in Dianetics [e.g., p.117, footnote: "The author
is well aware that many physicians, in using narco-synthesis,
have occasionally accidentally entered 'unconscious' periods."],Science
of Survival and the Research and Discovery volumes).
It is clear that Hubbard was aware of the work of psychiatrists
Grinker and Spiegel, who coined the term "narcosynthesis"
in the 1940s (33). In fact, Hubbard recommended a text which discussed
narcosynthesis and "hypnoanalysis" (34). This text gives
the following description: "The doctors [Grinker and Spiegel]
call this new technique narcosynthesis, because, while under the
hypnosis, the soldier patient re-experiences the shocking occurence
that caused his breakdown - his traumatic episode - and then reincorporates
the memory thus obtained" (35). The text also speaks of the
patient being asked to count backwards until in trance. This practice
is also found in Dianetics - although Hubbard was less than candid
about the trance state it can produce.
Dianetics is strongly related to these variations of Freudian
psychoanalysis, which were briefly popular as a treatment for
military personnel in both the US and Britain (where research
was led by Dr William Sargant, who described his work in the 1957
book Battle for the Mind, a copy of which used to be on
the shelves of Hubbard's personal library in the Founding Church
of Scientology in Washington, D.C.).
Narcosynthesis sought to "abreact" painful memories:
"Freud had found that 'affectless memories, memories without
any release of emotion', were almost useless; meaning, that unless
a doctor could get his patients to relieve the emotions originally
associated with a repressed experience that had caused a neurosis,
the mere fact of his remembering the experience would not constitute
a cure. Sadler consequently defined abreaction as 'a process of
reviving the memory of a repressed unpleasant experience and expressing
in speech and action the emotions related to it, thereby relieving
the personality of its influence.' In World War I, much the same
abreactive treatment had been successfully used, but for the most
part with hypnotism not drugs". (36)
Narcosynthesis was largely used on personnel suffering from what
is now called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The practice fell
out of favour because it was held to be inapplicable outside the
stresses of war (37). Hubbard, completely failed to acknowledge
the work of these psychiatrists.
Hubbard added to Freud's therapy Korzybski's theory of identification
(the "reactive mind" thinks in identities, the "analytical
mind" in similarities and differences. Hubbard attributes
this to Korzybski in Scientology 8-8008, on p.44), and
the notions of natal and prenatal memory. The dust sleeve of the
first edition of Dianetics: the Modern Science of Mental Health
advertises a book published a year earlier (in 1949) - Dr. Nandor
Fodor's The Search for the Beloved - a clinical investigation
of the trauma of birth and pre-natal conditioning.
As with Hubbard, Fodor believed that the trauma of birth and of
the prenatal period are "locked up in the depths of the unconscious
mind" (38). Fodor points out that "Catharsis (abreaction)
is the cornerstone of Freudian psychology. It is said that unless
the patient recovers the memory of the repressed and in recovering
it re-lives the original event, he cannot become free" (39).
Fodor adds "No psychoanalytic integration of a personality
can be completed until it reaches the fetal levels of the mind
because it is before birth that the psychic foundation of our
being is laid." (40).
Fodor asserts that phobias stem from the birth trauma (p.5). Other
undesirable conditions are also related to birth and the prenatal
period (e.g., pp.15, 35-36). Fodor asserts that his idea of the
birth trauma is not original, and was noted by Groddeck in 1935
(p.22). Fodor mentions others interested in the topic (p.30; p.139,
Dr. Grace Pailthorpe's 1941 paper "Deflection of Energy as
a Result of Birth Trauma, and Its Bearing Upon Character Formation"
is mentioned; pp.327 & 335, Dr. J. Sadger's paper "Preliminary
Study of the Psychic Life of the Fetus and the Primary Germ",
1941, is mentioned. Otto Rank is credited as the first to focus
attention on the topic, and Freud's acknowledgment of it is noted,
p.191. Rank's book The Trauma of Birth appeared in 1929).
Fodor too spoke of "emotional charge" (p.63).
Fodor encouraged his patients to "re-live" birth, and
reported instances where he believed this had happened (e.g.,
pp.79-80). Hubbard was to assert that the "reactive mind"
(his name for the "unconscious" or "subconscious")
records "mental image pictures". This idea is also found
in Fodor's 1949 publication, he even foreshadowed Hubbard's later
ideas that something psychic was at work: "[a newborn baby's]
unconscious mind ... may function in the same archaic way which
we encounter in the study of telepathic and clairvoyant phenomena
... Before self-consciousness forces these functions back into
the twilight realms, they may register events with that photographic
quality which is peculiar to the unconscious mind." (p.80).
Fodor also spoke of "transference" (e.g., pp.127, 334;
see earlier comments in this report about "transference"
and Hubbard's "valences"). Hubbard's views about the
separation between "conscious" ("analytical")
and "unconscious" ("reactive") minds has much
in common with Fodor's view (neither of which is the commonly
held contemporary view) (e.g., p.190). Fodor wrote "We know
that the unconscious mind records many impressions which the conscious
mind is not able or too preoccupied to notice." - a view
basic to Hubbard's theory.
Hubbard shared Fodor's view that the prenatal state is not necessarily
blissful (Fodor, p.303). Fodor also spoke of coitus and the "unborn"
(e.g., pp.309, 352) and dedicated a chapter to "attempts
at aborting the unborn" (p.325ff; p.334; p.352). Hubbard
devoted considerable space to these topics in his Dianetics.
Fodor expressed a dissatisfaction with "science" similar
to Hubbard's "The trouble with this scientific attitude is
that it is based solely on materialistic considerations. Prove
the existence of telepathy, and you have proven that shock effects
can be transmitted from one mind to another without nervous connection."
Fodor acknowledged various journals which had printed chapters
of his book prior to its publication, in 1949. Between 1945 and
1949, some thirteen articles had appeared. Fodor was not
the only bona fide researcher interested in these topics. In a
1992 article, Jeff Jacobsen also refers to Sadger's 1941 paper
concerning the recollection of memories prior to conception
(i.e., as sperm and ovum, called the "sperm dream" by
Hubbard) (41). Jacobsen quotes Sadger: "there exists certainly
a memory, although an unconscious one, of embryonic days, which
persists throughout life and may continuously determine an action."
Jacobsen also refers, as did Fodor, to Grace W. Pailthorpe, M.D. (42),
who asserted that psychoanalysis should include the recollection
In his "autobiographical notes for Peter Tompkins",
Hubbard asserted "As the Captain of Oak Knoll Naval Hospital
was an intimate friend of my father's, and as the war was obviously
all over for me, I was very pampered and had the run of the place
(p.25) ... I had the run of the medical library (p.26) ... Therefore,
using nothing but Freudian Psychoanalysis and using a park bench
as a consulting room, I set out to find out whether or not those
who would not assimilate hormones had mental blocks." (pp.25-27).
With the "run of the medical library", his references
to Freud and Breuer and his mention of "narcosynthesis",
it seems barely possible that Hubbard was unaware of the work
of Rank, Groddeck, Pailthorpe, Sadger and Fodor. If he was, he
was a very poor researcher.
Mental health professionals are not the only possible source for
the idea of re-living birth. In 1952, Hubbard recommended a work
by black magician Aleister Crowley, which Hubbard called The
Master Therion (published in 1929). This book was reprinted
as Magick in Theory and Practice, and it too contains reference
to the recollection of birth: "Having allowed the mind to
return for some hundred times to the hour of birth, it should
be encouraged to endeavour to penetrate beyond that period. If
it be properly trained to run backwards, there will be little
difficulty in doing this." (Crowley, p.419) (43).
According to his second wife, now Sara Hollister, Hubbard was
also greatly taken by the work of English psychologist Richard
Semon (Bent Corydon, L. Ron Hubbard Messiah or Madman?,
p.264. "Semon" is mistakenly rendered as "Simon"),
whose interest was largely with memory (he founded "mnemonic
psychology"). Semon invented the word "engram"
which is at the core of the Dianetic hypothesis. Hubbard himself
admitted "About 1914-15 there was a chap who remarked on
the fact that there was such a thing as an engram, that a moment
of unconsciousness was recorded all the way through." (44).
Hubbard himself credits his use of "deintensification"
- having the client tell and retell a traumatic memory - to normal
hypnotic practice (45). He was also to redefine the hypnotic term
"regression", showing that his method of therapy was,
in fact, regression based (Dianetics, p.11-12). In Dianetics:
the Modern Science of Mental Health, Hubbard used the term
"reverie", an expression commonly used by hypnotists
at the time for "light trance" (i.e., where the subject
appears to be awake (46)). Reverie was induced by the "auditor"
counting backwards at the client, again a commonly used method
of inducing trance (47).
Sociologist Roy Wallis, PhD, in his 1976 book The Road to Total
Freedom also noted many of these parallels, and asserted:
"Dianetics was a form of abreaction therapy, with strong
similarities to a variety of techniques then in use. Since Hubbard
himself has asserted the originality of the entire theory and
practice and acknowledges having been influenced only in a most
general way by other writers, it is difficult to be certain of
the sources of his synthesis. Ideas which approximate to many
aspects of the theory and practice of Dianetics were currently
available in orthodox and fringe psychology..." (Wallis,
WHAT IS TRUE FOR YOU IS TRUE
Speaking of his childhood mentor Commander Thompson, Hubbard said
"that's a very unusual thing to do, to take a 12-year-old
boy and start doing something with the mind ... He used to tell
me 'If it's not true for you, it's not true' ... and he got this
from a fellow named Gautama Siddhartha." (48). While the original
statement by the Buddha is not referenced, it may well have been
this far more eloquent appeal, from the Kalama Sutta, "Believe
nothing on the faith of traditions, even though they have been
held in honour for many generations, in many places. Do not believe
a thing because many people speak of it. Do not believe on the
faith of the sages of the past. Do not believe what you yourself
have imagined, persuading yourself that some god inspires you.
Believe nothing on the sole authority of your masters or priests.
After examination, believe what you yourself have tested and found
to be rational, and conform your conduct thereto." Alexandra
David-Neel (a possible source for much of Scientology) quotes
from a Buddhist Sutra: "Be your own guide and your own torch" (49).
The word 'dianetics' is a variant of 'dianoetic', the earliest
recorded usage is given as 1677 by the Shorter Oxford English
Dictionary. A group called "Dianism" was started shortly
before "Dianetics". The founder of this group was a
U.S. Navy lieutenant who had studied the works of Aleister Crowley.
Dianism centred upon the eighth ritual of Crowley's OTO - the
"magical masturbation". Curiously, this was the ceremony
performed by Hubbard with OTO leader Jack Parsons in 1946. It
seems eminently possible that "dian" refers to "Diana",
the Roman goddess, who in turn was seen by Crowley as the "dark
goddess" - the Empress, Hathor, Artemis, Shakti, or the Babylon,
or "Scarlet Woman", of the Book of Revelation. Hubbard's
ceremonies with Parsons were intended to incarnate this very force.
Hubbard called his first daughter by Mary Sue Hubbard, Diana.
He also renamed one of the Sea Org vessels the "Diana". (50)
The name Scientology is borrowed. It was first used by philologist
Allen Upward in The New World (which was published in 1910
in the U.S.). Upward used the word to mean "pseudo-science".
Nordenholz, an Aryan race theorist, adopted the word "Scientologie"
as the title of a 1934 book. Nordenholz's book was translated
into English and published in the 1960s by former Scientologist
Woodward McPheeters, who claimed many parallels between Nordenholz's
work and that of Hubbard. Nordenholz used the word "Scientologie"
to mean "the science of the constitution and usefulness of
knowledge and knowing" or the "science of consciousness".
Hubbard claimed both to have coined the term himself prior to
the inception of Dianetics (in 1950) ("In 1938 I codified
certain axioms and phenomena into what I called SCIENTOLOGY" (51)),
yet also claimed that Mary Sue Hubbard had coined it (52). He did
not meet Mary Sue until 1951.
CYCLE OF ACTION
Hubbard himself credited the "cycle of action" to Vedic
literature: "These were religious hymns and they are our
earliest debt in Scientology ... because the very early hymns
contain much that we know today and which checks against what
we have rediscovered ... and this material included such a common
thing as the cycle of the physical universe, known to you in Scientology
as the Cycle of Action ... all this information is in there."
(The Phoenix Lectures, pp.7-8).
THE TONE SCALE
The original tone scale, as given in Dianetics: The Modern
Science of Mental Health, seems to derive from Ivan Pavlov's
work on "conditioned reflexes". Pavlov asserted that
he had confirmed the existence of the four mediaeval "humours".
Hubbard referred to Pavlov's work several times (e.g., Dianetics,
p.142). "If a person is happy mentally, the survival level
can be placed in Zone 4 ... Very unprecise but nonetheless descriptive
names have been assigned to these zones. Zone 3 is one of general
happiness and well-being. Zone 2 is level of bearable existence.
Zone 1 is one of anger. Zone 0 is the zone of apathy." (Dianetics,
p.22 (53)). In 1951, in Science of Survival, Hubbard devised
a system of physiological diagnosis based upon emotional
tone. The four cardinal humours - attributed to Hippocrates -
were the basis of virtually all mediaeval medical diagnosis. The
humours are: phlegmatic (corresponding to Hubbard's "apathy");
melancholic (Hubbard's "grief"); choleric (Hubbard's
"anger"); and sanguine (Hubbard's "cheerfulness").
The phrase "the greatest good for the greatest number"
derives from Jeremy Bentham, the Utilitarian philospher.
TRAINING ROUTINE ZERO
Training Routine Zero (TR-0) both with eyes closed and eyes open
both derive from meditational techniques. L. Ron Hubbard jnr.
claimed that he introduced the form with open eyes after a discussion
with a Buddhist monk. Hindus call meditation in which one faces
another person "tratak".
THE MISUNDERSTOOD WORD
The notion of the misunderstood word derives from Korzybski: "General
Semantics was of use to Dianetics. I started going back looking
for the first time a word had appeared ... There might be some
misdefinitions ... General Semantics is definitely of use in the
definition of a word." (54). The philosopher Thomas Hobbes
was greatly concerned at adequacy of definition (as Jacobsen points
out), as have been all lexicographers from Samuel Johnson to this
day. Aleister Crowley also advocated the clarification of words (55).
AUTHORSHIP OF DIANETIC AND SCIENTOLOGY TEXTS
The first editions of several Hubbard books show that they were
compiled or edited from his lectures or indeed written by others.
In later editions, the work is attributed simply to Hubbard. The
first edition of How to Live Though an Executive carries
the statement "The manuscript of this book was prepared by
Richard deMille who helped in the development of the communications
system herein set forth". Latter editions simply delete this
statement and ascribe the work to Hubbard. Child Dianetics
was the work of a team, but again the current edition is attributed
solely to Hubbard. The Phoenix Lectures were compiled into
book form by members of the Hubbard Association of Scientologists
in South Africa, but only the first edition (called Notes on
the Lectures given by L. Ron Hubbard at Phoenix 1954)
acknowledges this fact. Dianetics the Original Thesis was
prepared for publication by Donald Rogers, to whom no acknowledgment
is given. Science of Survival was prepared for publication
by Richard de Mille, to whom no acknowledgment is given.
Dianetics: the Modern Science of Mental Health
Hubbard's first supposed therapy book, was also a collaborative
effort. Joseph Winter, M.D., has left his own account of this
in the book A Doctor's Report on Dianetics (56) (e.g. pp.16-19).
This is corroborated by my own correspondence with former Hubbard
associate Donald Rogers, the letters of John Campbell, jnr. and
Bent Corydon's interview with Hubbard's second wife, Sara Hollister.
Winter, Rogers, Campbell and Sara Hubbard were among the original
seven board members of the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation.
These four discussed the terminology with Hubbard, and the changes
made by them are obvious when comparing Hubbard's first article
on Dianetics (Terra Incognita: the Mind) and the book Dianetics
the Original Thesis with other works. For example, by the
time Dianetics: the Modern Science of Mental Health was
published, in May 1950, Hubbard accepted an existing medical term,
"engram", for the memory of a period of pain or unconsciousness.
Hubbard said that he had previously used the terms "norn",
"comanome" or "impediment". According to Joseph
Winter, M.D., the term "engram" was taken from the 1936
edition of Dorland's Medical Dictionary (it is attributed to psychologist
Richard Semon). As far as I know, this is nowhere admitted in
the literature of Dianetics and Scientology.
Professional Auditor's Bulletins (PABs)
Many of the PABs were written by Johann Tempelhoff. However, since
the late 1970s, Tempelhoff's name has been removed from all PABs.
PAB 149 originally carried the legend "Compiled from the
research material and tape lectures of L.RON HUBBARD by Johann
Tempelhoff." Technically, this is plagiarism in that the
written work was still that of Tempelhoff, whatever the source
of the ideas.
The Book Introducing the E-Meter
This booklet is currently sold as an L. Ron Hubbard work. The
first edition carried this legend: "Photographed and compiled
by Reg Sharpe from the lectures and demonstrations by L.RON HUBBARD."
Subsequent editions simply remove Sharpe's name: "Photographed
and compiled from the lectures and demonstrations by L.RON HUBBARD."
Sharpe's photographs have been recredited to Hubbard along with
Rocky Mountain News
In February 1983, the Rocky Mountain News published what purported
to be a long interview with L.Ron Hubbard. In fact, Hubbard's
replies were compiled by his ghost writer, Vaughn Young, a member
of the Hubbard biography project at that time.
The ten volumes of this book were rewritten prior to publication
by Vaughn Young.
Ron's Technical Research and Compilations (RTRC)
For many years, Hubbard recorded his thoughts in taped lectures.
These were used as the source for printed issues (Bulletins, Policy
Letters, Executive Directives and so forth). Hubbard gave his
last public lecture in 1966. He continued to lecture occasionally
to specific Scientologist audiences until 1975. From that time
on, Hubbard continued to record his utterances on tape, and some
time in the early 1970s a unit initially called "Ron's Technical
Compilations" came into being to compile printed issues based
upon Hubbard "advice" tapes. With the incorporation
of the Religious Technology Center in 1981, a new acronym was
needed, so the compilations unit became Ron's Technical Research
and Compilations. Ken Rose, in Los Angeles, was a member of this
highly restricted unit until November 1988. No specific acknowledgment
is given to members of this unit, although the wording of issues
is probably often their own.
Several people were given the right to publish issues on Hubbard's
behalf and using his name (the name after all has been owned by
Scientology since the 1960s - technically, the Board of Directors
of the Church of Scientology of California could up to 1981, when
the Church of Scientology International took over, issue work
purportedly from Hubbard which Hubbard had never seen.) David
Gaiman, acting as Scientology's head of Public Relations told
a British government Enquiry "Any staff member can propose
and have published a policy document ... Most policy is put out
under Mr. Hubbard's name, no matter whom the writer." (57).
Laurel Sullivan is probably most notable among these ghost authors,
as she was Hubbard's personal Public Relations Officer for some
There have been many unacknowledged contributors. Prior to his
claim that he was the "Source", "fellowships"
were awarded to Scientologists who had made a major contribution (58).
Of course, David Mayo was such a contributor with the "NOTs"
or "OT 5" materials, but while the court has ruled that
Mayo was the co-author, the Church of Scientology still hides
this fact from its members. Otto Roos was also a major contributor,
working on the 1960s rehash of Dianetics and the "List processes"
or "Ls" in 1971 (At a thousand dollars per hour, L10,
L11 and L12 are the most expensive "processing" given
Evans Farber claims to have first suggested the need for an acknowledgment
in the "cycle of communication", and therefore was the
originator of Training Routine 2 (TR-2).
John McMaster was responsible for keeping Hubbard informed of
any interesting ideas or procedures brought forward by Saint Hill
students. The "Search and Discovery" procedure is based
upon McMaster's own work. McMaster also claimed that the "Power"
or "Grade V" materials were a gift to Hubbard from a
Scientologist called Walter Hubbard who lived in Hawaii.
Ray and Pam Kemp have claimed that they suggested the "Drug
Rundown" to Hubbard. Jim Dincalci seems to have been responsible
for the use of "Cal-Mag" (a calcium magnesium mixture
otherwise used only as a tranquilliser for sheep). Bill and Connie
Hamilton have claimed to be the originators of the "Data
Former Scientologist Ruth Minshull wrote several books about Scientology,
all of which are copyrighted to Hubbard.
The original version of What is Scientology? was copyrighted
to Hubbard, although it was written by Harvey Haber. The "Key
to Life Course" currently sold by Scientology organizations
was developed by Donna Haber.
It is in fact the Policy of Scientology to ascribe all copyrights
to Hubbard. See HCOPL Outstanding Copyrights and Marks,
15 November 1958.
THE OXFORD CAPACITY ANALYSIS
The current "OCA" personality test is credited to Hubbard.
Formerly it was credited to Mary Sue Hubbard. This happened after
Ray Kemp had refused to assign the copyright to Hubbard - his
test was changed very slightly to become Mary Sue Hubbard's. However,
Kemp had plagiarised the test from Julia Salman's American Capacity
Analysis, which in turn derives largely from the 1940s Johnson
THE TWO TERMINAL UNIVERSE
Hubbard credited this fundamental Scientology idea to Buckminster
Fuller in HCOPL Positioning, Philosophic Theory, 30 January
POSITIONING & 'SURVEY TECHNOLOGY'
Occasionally, Hubbard was willing to admit that his work derived
from other sources. So for example, his ideas about "positioning"
in marketing are in fact a gauche interpretation of the ideas
of Reis and Trout (69). The "survey technology" clearly
derives from motivational research, and Hubbard makes this clear
by referencing Vance Packard's Hidden Persuaders, which
was actually an attack upon the techniques that Hubbard
SOURCES FOR SCIENTOLOGY
During the late 1930s and the 1940s, Hubbard corresponded with
and visited fellow adventure writer Arthur J. Burks. Burks own
work shares much of the philosophical basis of Hubbard's. Hubbard
got into print before Burks, but the Hubbard Archive contains
many copies of letters exchanged by Burks and Hubbard. These letters
if produced would show the extent of Hubbard's plagiarism of Burks.
MAGIC SYMBOLS - RITUAL MAGIC
Many of the symbols of Scientology were taken from ritual magic.
Hubbard was a member of the AMORC Rosicrucians in 1940 and performed
sexual "magick" ceremonies with Jack Parsons, a follower
of Aleister Crowley, in 1946. The Scientology cross is very
similar to the Rosicrucian and Crowley crosses. Hubbard also used
the "daleth" triangle of the Egyptian destroyer god
Set as the Dianetic symbol.
The theta symbol used by Scientology is the central symbol of
Crowley's Ordo Templi Orientis, where it denotes "thelema"
or the will. It is the symbol of "Babalon", the antichrist
that Hubbard and Parsons tried to incarnate. The "S and double
triangle" motif of Scientology probably derives from the
black magic use of the snake symbol (the "wise serpent"
or Satan) combined with a deconstruction into two triangles of
the Star of David (rather like hanging the Christian cross upside
down to signify devil worship). This symbol - the magical hexagram
- was used by Hubbard and Parsons during their attempts at incarnating
the anti-Christ in human form. Again, Hubbard shares the double
triangle with Crowley, where the triangles stood for the "Argentinum
Astrum" or "Silver Star", a name for Crowley's
organization prior to his take-over of the Ordo Templi Orientis.
Crowley's order - the OTO - had a common origin with the Thule
group to which several members of the Nazi hierarchy belonged
(including deputy party chairman Rudolph Hess). The sig rune -
used by the Nazis - appears on the Scientology International Managment
Organization's symbol - a red square enclosing a white disc and
set off by four such sig runes. The swastika of the Nazi flag
has been replaced by the Scientology "S and double triangle".
The symbol of the Religious Technology Center is surrounded by
sig runes. As far as I can ascertain, the sig rune is otherwise
peculiar to the Nazis. (60)
Crowley's notion of "the will":
"The original definition of Scientology 8-8008 was the attainment
of infinity by the reduction of the apparent infinity and power
of the MEST [Matter, Energy, Space, Time] universe to a zero for
himself, and the increase of the apparent zero of one's own universe
to an infinity for oneself ... It can be seen that [the] infinity
[symbol] stood upright makes the number eight" (61). Which
is to say, the essential idea of Scientology is to raise the power
of the individual's will or intention to "an infinity".
This aim is held in common with all magical systems (Cavendish
quotes Crowley "the Great Work is the raising of the whole
man in perfect balance to the power of Infinity", The
Magical Arts, p.5). The exercises used in the attempt to achieve
this - especially those in The Creation fo Human Ability
(some of which were on the original "OT 5" course) -
are ritual magic disguised as therapy. (62)
The current "OT" levels deal almost exclusively with
"body thetans". The idea that human beings can be infested
with spirits is common to most religions. As examples, such "attached
spirits" are called "demons" in Christian literature,
"dibbuks" in Jewish literature, "jinn" in
Islamic literature and "gDons" in Tibetan literature.
In the gospel of Luke, for example, we find the following: "For
Jesus was ordering the unclean spirit to come out of the man.
Many a time it had seized him ... Jesus asked him, 'What is your
name?' 'Legion', he replied. This was because so many devils had
taken possession of him." (63). (64)
The method used to deal with these "body thetans" on
the "new OT 5 course" is surprisingly similar to that
employed by Chicago University professor Eugene Gendlin in his
"focusing". The "OT 5" materials were published
with a very limited distribution starting in September 1978. Gendlin's
book was also published that year.
The Scientologists rely on a machine which they call "the
Hubbard Electropsychometer" or "E-meter". The title
is misleading as the machine was not developed by Hubbard. Indeed,
Scientology literature admits that the first such machine for
use in Dianetics was built by Volney Mathison (What is Scientology?,
Ist edition, 1978). Later machines were designed by others, particularly
Don Breeding, and E-Meter Essentials contains the following
dedication: "To all those who have helped to develop the
modern Electrometer". Some form of "E-meter" has
actually been in use since before WWI, and in a rare early publication
Hubbard admitted that it was pretty much a lie detector as used
in police polygraphs (Electropyschometric Auditing, 1952).
To quote from Barbara Brown's Supermind: "Nothing
perhaps, is a more poignant testimonial to the disregard of science
for creative insights into the nature of man than the blindness
of psychophysiology to the original observations by C.G. Jung
about the body's ability to reveal the unconscious mind. It was
in 1904 that Jung reported his experiments with recordings of
the skin's electrical activity, while conducting psychological
interviews. Using an old-fashioned galvanometer, he found the
electrical activity in the skin changed specifically and dramatically
when he asked questions that penetrated the hidden emotions of
his patients. He is reported to have exclaimed 'Aha, a looking
glass into the unconscious!'"
Gregory Mitchell's "History of the E-Meter" goes into
considerable detail on this subject ("Outward Bound - the
magazine of the Dianasis Data Network". No issue number or
The practice of "disconnection", whereby one individual
ceases all communication with another, has been found in fundamentalist
sects for many years. Indeed, the practice has been enshrined
in the English language with the phrase "sending to Coventry".
The Amish call the practice "shunning"; the Exclusive
Brethren call the practice "withdrawal". However, Hubbard
probably took the practice from Christian Science.
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE & THE SUPPRESSIVE PERSON
Roy Wallis, PhD, in his Road to Total Freedom pointed out
a number of similarities between Scientology and Christian Science.
The most alarming of these is Mary Baker Eddie's "malicious
animal magnetism", which has great similarity to Hubbard's
teachings on Suppressive Persons and his adoption of the Fair
Game law and disconnection.
Hubbard referred to Christian Science in a 1952 lecture (Philadelphia
Doctorate Course, lecture 37). He recalled writing a story
ridiculing the fundamental belief of Christian Science - that
the mind generates the physical world. The story, "One was
stubborn", appeared in Astounding Science Fiction in November
1940. Of course, Scientology too has as fundamental premiss "considerations
take rank over the mechanics of matter, energy, space and time",
which is the very idea he was ridiculing in Christian Science.
The invidious practice of "Fair Game" is based in mediaeval
English law, where an individual was marked as an "outlaw"
or person beyond the protection of the law. Such mediaeval practices
have long been abandoned in the civilized world, along with branding
and trial by ordeal.
This quite obviously derives from Hindu and Buddhist idea about
"karma-vipaka" or action and reaction. It is also a
Christian belief: you reap as you have sown.
Since the release of Dianetics in 1950, many Dianetic and Scientology
splinter groups have formed. These have further spread Hubbard's
ideas creating a considerable literature. Such subjects as Synergetic
therapy, E-therapy, Humanics, Dianology, Amprinistics, Eductivism,
Abilitism, the Enlightenment Intensive, Re-evaluation Co-counselling,
Sciognostics, Dianasis, Avatar, est (the Forum, now Landmark Trust),
Kenja, Primal Therapy and Eckancar all derive from Dianetics and
Scientology. Many texts rivalling those of Hubbard have been produced
in the last 40 years. To this extent, Hubbard's ideas have entered
the public domain.
Hubbard also borrowed lavishly from the US Navy, with uniforms
and campaign ribbons, Boards of Fitness and a slew of military
jargon. Security guards in the U.S. have taken to an imitation
of the uniform of state troopers.
The "creative processing" of Hubbard's 1952 Philadelphia
Doctorate Course derives from the work of black magician Aleister
Crowley. Crowley is mentioned three times during the course of
the lectures, one of his books is recommended and Hubbard calls
him "my very good friend" (which was not in fact true
- they neither met nor corresponded). Crowley's work also provided
Hubbard with the notion of "past lives" (which was Crowley's
expression for reincarnation). "Creative processing"
is in fact a form of positive hallucination which is currently
disguised under the term "guided visualization" and
is more traditionally called "astral projection". Reference
to the use of such techniques can also be found in the works of
Alexandra David-Neele - books which were popular in the 1930s.
Hubbard also borrowed from George Washington, taking the phrase
"The price of freedom is constant vigilance, constant willingness
to fight back", and simply changing the word "vigilance"
to "alertness" (see Dianetics the Modern Science
of Mental Health, definition "price of freedom").
Hubbard also adopted the British slogan "the empire on which
the sun never sets" and turned it into "the sun never
sets on Scientology" (The Aims of Scientology).
Defendant's exhibit 9, Scientology 0-8, shows the "Gradient
Scale of the Relative Value of Data", this was first published
by Hubbard in 1951 as an appendix to Science of Survival.
It derives from Korzybski.
I have an unconfirmed report that the "Study Technology"
was lifted whole from a photography course that Hubbard was taking.
I will research this further.
Hubbard was to create a mystique around his supposed association
with the Blackfoot or Pikune Indians. He claimed to have been
a "bloodbrother" at the age of two. However, prior to
creating this fiction, Hubbard admitted that his information about
the Blackfoot Indians came from a man he met in the 1930s (see
Hubbard's article "Search for Research").
Robert Heinlein's ideas are also very similar to Hubbard's in
places. Thankfully, Heinlein put the ideas into a fictional context.
Hubbard claimed a close relationship with Heinlein, and I believe
they did meet during the War.
Hubbard also seems to have borrowed ideas from Fritz Perls' Gestalt
Therapy - though I haven't looked into this in any depth yet.
Hubbard's 'dynamics' have an origin in the work of a turn of the
century mystic (whose name escapes me at the moment). I'm making
enquiries on this.
THE REHABILITATION PROJECT FORCE
The Rehabilitation Project Force (RPF) appears to derive from
a study of Chinese Communist "thought reform" techniques.
There are a number of parallels between the RPF (introduced by
Hubbard aboard the "Apollo" in 1973) and such techniques
(first described in detail by psychiatrist Robert Lifton in 1961).
The repeated questions of Scientology "processing" are
similar to the Zen ko-an, except that the individual does not
repeatedly ask the question of himself.
In the 1930s, Alexandra David-Neel's books about Tibet were popular
in the United States. As Hubbard was inclined towards mysticism
and magical practices, and as only a tiny amount of literature
was available at the time, it seems likely that Hubbard read David-Neel's
books. He was later to claim (with no foundation in fact) that
he had studied in Tibet (65). Scientology is supposedly rooted
in Hubbard's combination of eastern mysticism and western science.
The parallels between Hubbard's ideas and those of the Tibetans
David-Neel's first book, Magic and Mystery in Tibet, was
published in the U.S. in 1932. This was followed by Initiations
and Initiates in Tibet, first published in French in 1931,
and Buddhism - its doctrines and methods, first published
in English in 1939.
Scientology holds much in common with popular books about Tibetan
mysticism published in the 1930s by Alexandra David-Neel. The
following ideas are held in common:
Escape from the "cycle of birth and death"
The definition of the spirit
"Exteriorization" or "astral travel"
The "between-lives area" or "bardo"
"Implanting" in the bardo
That the individual is actually a "composite being"
Belief in telepathy
The use of techniques to bring about telepathic control of others
The use of the triangle as a symbol
The "process" of "clearing"
The capacity of the spirit to emit energy beams
The notion that reality is a halluciantion held in common
"Serenity" as the highest human state
The assertion that belief is self-created
That "being" is senior to "doing"
The distinction between "being" and "becoming"
Ideas about "absolute" and "relative" truth
The recollection of experiences in former lives
The notion of surrounding oneself with like-minded individuals
The significance of the interplay between the static and the kinetic
"Postulates" or "wishes"
That neither good nor evil exist
The "overt-motivator sequence" - a simplified version
of the "karma-vipaka" concept of Buddhism.
IDEAS COMMON TO DAVID-NEEL AND HUBBARD:
As with Scientology, the Tibetans believe that they can escape
the "wheel of rebirth", and the outcome of their previous
actions (karma-vipaka, called the "overt-motivator sequence"
in Scientology), by applying a set of techniques ("he may
cause himself to be reborn in the most agreeable conditions possible" (66)).
To quote from Hubbard "Not the least of the qualities of
O.T. is personal and knowing immortality and freedom from the
cycle of birth and death" (Auditor 19). The "cycle of
birth and death" is a Buddhist concept, more usually expressed
as the "cycle of death and rebirth" or the "wheel
Hubbard claimed to differ from earlier researchers in defining
the "spirit" as the "I" ("Basic Dictionary
of Dianetics and Scientology", definition of "thetan",
"Dianetics & Scientology Technical Dictionary",
definition of "theta being"). However, David-Neel has
"What is this 'that' which continues its way after the body
has become a corpse? It is a special 'consciousness' among the
several distinguished by Lamaists. The 'consciousness' of the
'I', or according to another definition 'the will to live'" (67).
The popular Tibetan idea of the "spirit" is much the
same as Scientology's "thetan", both seem to derive
from the Hindu "jiva" doctrine: "the large majority
of unlearned Buddhists have lapsed into the old Indian doctrine
which represents the jiva (self) periodically 'changing
his worn-out body for a new one, as we cast away a worn-out garment
to clothe ourself in a new.'" (68). David-Neel elsewhere quotes
from the Hindu Bhagavad Gita: "Just as a man puts
off his old clothing to put on new, so also 'that which is incarnated'
(dehi) puts off his old bodies to assume new ones." (69).
The ultimate goal of Scientology is the ability of the "spirit",
"self" or "thetan" to leave the body and travel
at will with "full perception" ("Dianetics and
Scientology Technical Dictionary", definition of "exteriorization").
This goal is found in many magical systems. In Tibet those who
supposedly have this ability are called delogs. The Tibetans
believe in an "ethereal double" capable of what is elsewhere
called "astral travel": "During life, in a normal
state, this 'double' is closely united to the body. Nevertheless,
certain circumstances may cause their separation. The 'double'
can, then, leave the material body and show itself in different
places; or being itself invisible, it can accomplish various
peregrinations ... Tibetans say that those who have trained themselves
for the purpose can effect it at will." (70).
Hubbard told his followers of the "between-lives area",
where they supposedly go between incarnations ("Dianetics
and Scientology Technical Dictionary", definition "between-lives
area"). This is the bardo of the Tibetan Book of
the Dead. Three levels of Hubbard's "bridge" relate
to "implants". In the early 1960s, in the foreword to
a book written by his then-follower Charles Berner, Hubbard admitted:
"The more experienced auditor [Scientology practitioner]
would recognise the Between Lives aspect and implants..." (71).
A fundamental aspect of Scientology is the belief that the human
being is a composite of "entities" (72) or beings ("thetans"
or "body thetans"). "by BODY THETAN is meant a
thetan who is stuck to another thetan or body but is not in control." (73)
and "What you see as a human being, a person, is not a single
unit being ... It is the aggregate of all these factors which
you address when you seek to guide or handle the usual human being
... When you are handling a human being, you are handling a composite." (74).
Most of Scientology's esoteric teachings deal with supposed indwelling
spirits, or demon possession in Christian terms. This belief in
indwelling spirits has an origin with the Tibetans: "Animals
have several 'consciousnesses', just as we have ourselves, and
as it also happens in our case, these 'consciousnesses' do not
all follow the same road after death. A living being is an assemblage,
not a unity." (75). "Sustained attention, perspicacious
investigation will show us that we are not a unit but a plurality,
that we shelter, temporarily, guests of varying origins, come
from all points of the universe and as the lengthy consequences
of intermingled causes and effects ... the Buddhist is exhorted
to discern the nature of the elements which make up what he calls
his 'self'. He is encouraged to follow up, as far as possible,
the line of causes and effects which have contributed to the constitution
of these elements and have led to their momentary union. Buddhists
are recommended to watch, with sustained attention, the behaviour
of these diverse elements ... In truth each supposed ego
is a meeting-place where jostles about a crowd that comes and
goes continually by many roads, for members of this crowd are
constantly on the move to join other crowds at other meeting-places
of universal life" (76). The Tibetans call these indwelling
spirits or demons "gDons" (77).
Tibetans also use visualization techniques (also called "guided
fantasy" or "induced positive hallucination") which
Hubbard called "creative processing" during his Philadelphia
Doctorate Course in 1952 (78).
In the original "Operating Thetan section VII course",
Scientologists were given exercises which would supposedly lead
to the ability to implant thoughts into another person's mind.
Scientologists believe that they will ultimately be capable of
psychic feats including telepathy and telepathic control of others
(the aim of all forms of black magic). Practices with similar
ends are described by David-Neel (79).
Hubbard's use of a triangle as a symbol of Dianetics can be explained
by the common use of this symbol to denote black magic (also true
in the Crowley system practised by Hubbard in 1946): "The
word kyilkhors means a circle, nevertheless, amongst the
numberless forms of kyilkhors, there exist square and quadrangular
forms, while those used in black magic or for the coercion or
destruction of malignant entities are triangular." (80).
A central aspect of Dianetics and Scientology is the notion of
"clearing" which supposedly comes from an analogy with
a calculating machine with a held-down number which interferes
with all calculations. The held-down number is "cleared",
so that the machine once more functions accurately. "Clearing"
is achieved through the application of "processes" ("Dianetics
and Scientology Technical Dictionary" definitions of "clear"
and "clearing"). However, David-Neel too spoke of the
"process" of "clearing" (81).
Hubbard asserted that the being, spirit or "thetan"
is capable of transmitting pure energy in the form of "tractor"
and "pressor" beams ("Dianetics and Scientology
Technical Dictionary", definitions "tractor beam",
"pressor beam"). This too is an aspect of Tibetan teaching:
"Mystic masters affirm that by the means of such concentration
of mind, waves of energy are produced" (82).
Hubbard asserted that "reality is the agreed-upon apparency
of existence" (Scientology Axiom 26) and "Considerations
take rank over the mechanics of space, energy and time ... it
is conceived that space, energy and time are themselves broadly
agreed-upon considerations. That so many minds agree brings about
Reality in the form of space, energy and time." (Scientology
0-8, p.27). Further, "REALITY: That agreement upon illusion
which became the MEST [Matter, Energy, Space and Time] universe"
(Scientology 8-8008, p.133). This is the doctrine of illusion:
"In Tibet the learned adepts of the Dzogschen Sect ... regard
the world as a pure mirage which we ourselves produce, and which
has no sort of existence outside ourselves. All that we see, all
that we feel, is identical with that which we see and feel in
our dreams..." (Buddhism, p.140); "The bodhisattva
practically exercises his compassion when he has freed himself
from the illusion which creates belief in the reality of the world
as we perceive it." (IIT, p.135); "'Like visions seen
in a dream, so must we regard all things.' ... For intellectual
Buddhists of the Mahayana School, the world is not the dream of
some fabled Brahma, but our own dream ... Each one of us fabricates,
continuously, in his spirit, images of the world with its many
aspects which, so it seems to him, surrounds him and in which
he sees himself playing a part as he may do in a dream. The world
is not outside us but in us." (IIT, p.170).
Scientology holds that the highest state is "serenity of
beingness" ("Tone Scale in Full"), which once again
is held in common with Buddhism: "The model he sets before
the disciple is the calm figure of the arahan ... who has
attained immovable serenity of mind" (IIT, p.136).
The "what's true for you is true" idea, which Hubbard
ascribed to the Buddha (Story of Dianetics and Scientology,
taped lecture, 1958), appears in David-Neel as "Be your own
guide and your own torch" (citing the Buddha, IIT, p.147).
The Tibetans also speak of the seniority of "being"
to "doing", an essential theme in Hubbard's work (IIT,
p.162). Buddhist doctrine makes a clear distinction between "being"
and "becoming". The Sanskrit bhava and the Tibetan
sipa or sridpaconnote "Existence in the sense
of 'becoming'." The Sanskrit sat and the Tibetan yeu
or yod connote "Existence in the absolute sense
of being." (IIT, p.218). With Hubbard this becomes: "There
is beingness, but Man believes there is only becomingness."
(Scientology 0-8, Factor 27). Hubbard asserts that "Space,
time and energy become Be, Have and Do ... Space could be said
to be BE." (Journal of Scientology, 1952, c. late November.
Technical volume 1, p.295) and "In life experience space
becomes beingness" (Journal of Scientology, 31 January 1954,
Technical volume 2, p.13). David-Neel has "As the mind possesses
no independent existence, no true 'self', we must know that it
is like space itself." (IIT, p.183).
Hubbard asserted that "absolute truth" is unknowable
(Scientology 0-8, Logic 6: "Absolutes are unobtainable.",
Logic 7: "COROLLARY: Any datum has only relative truth."),
this too reflects one of David-Neel's texts: "We must distinguish,
they say, two sorts of truth - relative and absolute. Of these
two kinds only the former, relative truth, is accessible to us."
Buddhism contains a belief in reincarnation, David-Neel says "Buddhists
are often heard to speak of the 'memory' which an individual may
retain concerning his former incarnations." (IIT, p.166).
Dianetics and Scientology both depend upon the supposed recollection
of former incarnations ("past lives"). This is termed
"whole track recall" by Scientologists.
David-Neel has "Seek friends who share your beliefs and habits
and in whom you can put your trust" and "Avoid the friends,
companions, relatives, or disciples whose company injures your
peace of mind or your spiritual growth" (IIT, p.182). Hubbard
has "Acquisition or proximity of matter, energy or organisms
which assist the survival of an organism increase the survival
potentials of an organism" and "Acquisition or proximity
of matter, energy or organisms which inhibit the survival of an
organism decrease its survival potential" (Dianetic Axioms
Hubbard shares the Tibetans concern for the interplay of the static
and the kinetic (Dianetic Axioms 34 & 36). David-Neel quotes
from a Sutra: "By rubbing two sticks against each other,
fire is produced. And by the fire born of them, both sticks are
consumed. Likewise, by the intelligence born of them, the couple
formed by 'the motionless' and by 'the moving', and the observer
who considers their duality are alike consumed." (IIT, p.204).
The Hubbard notion of "postulates" (Dianetics and
Scientology Technical Dictionary, definition 2, "postulate")
can also be found in David-Neel: "Wishes, or vows, in Tibetan
meulam (smonlam) and in Sanskrit pranidhana,
occupy in Buddhism a place analagous to that of prayers in theistic
religions. Buddhists do not pray, they wish and in general, they
believe that if the mental power of him who expresses the wish
is sufficiently intense, such a wish acquires proficiency and
produces the realisation of the result desired." (IIT, p.214,
Hubbard has "Absolute good and absolute evil do not exist
in the MEST [matter, energy, space and time] universe." (Dianetic
axiom 188) and "Goodness and badness, beautifulness and ugliness,
are alike considerations and have no other basis than opinion."
(Scientology axiom 31). David-Neel has "It would be imprudent,
they [the Tibetan intelligentsia] hold, to reveal, indiscrimin|ately
to one and all, that, really, there is neither good nor evil,
that both are but conventions of a relative character." (IIT,
Hubbard taught a simplified version of the Hindu and Buddhist
doctrine of "karma-vipaka" (literally "action and
reaction"), with his "overt-motivator" sequence.
David-Neel: "Man is dependent on the general Karman [or "karma"]
of humanity, and he is also dependent on the cosmic Karman. If
a man finds himself caught in the midst of a war, or an epidemic
of plague, or if a cataclysm, such as an earthquake, occurs in
the place where he is living, the sequence of his own deeds, and
perhaps his character, will be altered by these circumstances.
Some ts will say that past deeds have led the man to be born in
the place where these calamities were going to happen, or perhaps
to move to it if the place of his birth was destined to be immune
to such troubles." (Buddhism, pp.198-199).
Buddhism: Buddhism its Doctrines and Methods, David-Neel,
IIT: Initiates and Initiations in Tibet, David-Neel, 1931.
MMT: Magic and Mystery in Tibet, David-Neel, 1929.
TBMP: Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry, Clifford,
- 20 December 1969, LRH ED 67 Int.
- KSW News, issue 8
- see "The Corporations of Scientology", definitions
of "ecclesiatical" and "scripture", also Lyman
Spurlock's testimony in CSI v Armstrong
- The Phoenix Lectures, p.12
- ibid p.11
- Creation of Human Ability (1954), p.9
- ibid p.181
- See also Ability major issue 5.
- All page numbers refer to 1973 edition. Later editions may
- Research and Discovery, vol.6, p.277
- Hubbard dedicated Dianetics: the Modern Science of Mental
Health to Will Durant, whose Story of Philosophy contains
a number of ideas later espoused by Hubbard. See especially the
chapters on Bergson and Spencer.
- published in Two Short Accounts of Psycho-Analysis,
- ibid p.33
- ibid p.39
- ibid p.37
- ibid p.37; see also p.42 for the use of the word "chain"
- "Dianetic Auditor's Bulletin", vol. 1, nos. 1 &
2, July-August 1950
- Two Short Accounts of Psycho-Analysis, p.41
- ibid p.42
- "New Slant on Life, p.29
- Two Short Accounts of Psycho-Analysis, p.43
- ibid p.43
- ibid p.35
- "LRH's autobiographical notes for Peter Tompkins."
Exhibit 500-I in CSI v. Armstrong, pp.7-8
- Dianetics Today, pp.96-97
- Research and Discovery, vol.1, p.68
- ibid, p.317
- Dianetics Today, p.310
- Research and Discovery, vol.6, p.277
- Science of Survival, II, p.67
- Research and Discovery, vol.1, p.440-441
- see their book Men Under Stress, published in 1945.
See p.vii for use of the term, and pp.60-63 for one example of
a case history
- Wolfe and Rosenthal's Hypnotism comes of Age, recommended
by Hubbard in Research and Discovery, vol.2, p.12
- Hypnotism comes of Age, p.150
- Sargant, Battle for the Mind, p.54. He lists others
interested in this field before WWII on p.55. A description of
his own abreactive method and its relation to the work of Pavlov
is given on pp.56-57
- Grinker & Spiegel, Men Under Stress, introduction
to the 2nd edition.
- Search, p.4
- ibid p.193
- ibid p.329; see also cap. "Integration of Pre-Natal Trauma",
- Jacobsen, "The Hubbard is Bare", pp.11-12, referring
to Dr. J. Sadger, "Prelimary Study of the Psychic Life of
the Fetus and Primary Germ", Psychoanalytic Review, July
- Jacobsen, p.12
- See Atack Hubbard and the Occult, 1995, for a more
complete discussion of Crowley's influence upon Hubbard. See also
Atack, A Piece of Blue Sky, 1990, for a description of
Hubbard's involvement with the Crowley system, in the chapter
His Magickal Career.
- Dianetics Today, p.97
- Research and Discovery, vol.3, p.118-119
- See Hypnotism comes of Age, pp.61, 87-88, 124
- e.g., Gibson Hypnotism, p.87, see also Hypnotism
comes of Age, p.151, already cited
- "The Story of Dianetics and Scientology", taped
- Initiations and Initiates in Tibet, p.147
- See also Atack Hubbard and the Occult, 1995.
- Arcadia Address, Wichita, 1952, p.8
- "The Auditor" issue 21, p.1
- See "The Tone Scale 1950", p.101, Scientology
- R&D vol1, p.440
- Magick Without Tears, pp.xii, 26, 407 &440
- reprinted as Dianetics - A Doctor's Report, Julian
Press, NY, 1987.
- Foster report, 1971, p.16
- HCOPL Certificates and Awards, 12 August 1963
- Reis and Trout, Positioning the battle for your mind,
McGraw Hill, NY, 1981. Parts of which were originally published
in Advertising Age, 1972.
- See also Atack, Hubbard and the Occult.
- Scientology 8-8008, p.30
- See also, Atack, Hubbard and the Occult.
- cap.8, v.29-30, New English Bible. See also
- See also, Atack, Hubbard and the Occult.
- What is Scientology?, 1978, p.xlii
- David-Neel, MMT, p.24-25
- MMT, p.25
- ibid p.117
- IIT, p.167
- MMT, p.28
- A Manual for Guiding a Person through the after Death
Experience, Berner; see also MMT, pp.29, 32-33; TBMP,
p.111; and the Tibetan Book of the Dead
- Scientology: A History of Man, pp.13-14
- HCO Bulletin "Definitions Sect III", 5 February
1970 issue II
- HCO Bulletin "The Nature of a Being", 30 July 1980
- MMT, p.59
- IIT, pp.168-169
- see TBMP, pp.147-170, which treats with gDons extensively
- see MMT, pp.147-148
- ibid pp.233-234
- ibid p.265
- ibid p.278; see also IIT, p.141
- MMT, p.293; see also p.297